Urbanization ultimately presented New York and Brooklyn with an equine crisis of mind-numbing proportions.
By the late 1880s, horses plying the roads were producing an estimated four million pounds
of manure a day, plus 40,000 gallons of urine.
Eric Morris, writing in ACCESS magazine, charts the fascinating rise
and demise of the urban horse.
In 1898, delegates from across the globe gathered in New York City for the world’s ﬁrst international urban planning conference.
One topic dominated the discussion.
It was not housing, land use, economic development, or infrastructure.
The delegates were driven to desperation by horse manure.